ACCORDING to several research studies, women live about five times longer than men. One of the answers lies in their biological nature. Oestrogen, the female hormone helps to reduce the bad cholesterol which is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL)] and increase the good cholesterol which is high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in their bodies. On the other hand, testosterone increases the LDL and reduces the HDL.

This puts men at greater risks of heart disease, hypertension and stroke. In addition, higher testosterone production in men during puberty causes reckless and aggressive behaviours, resulting in higher death rates from violence and road accidents.

Each human has a pair of sex chromosomes to pass down the genetic information to the next generation. In men, it is a pair of XY chromosomes, whereas in women it is pair of XX chromosomes. Studies showed that the X chromosome is important for regulating the body’s immune system.

If there is genetic mutation in the X chromosome in the case of women, they have a backup copy to compensate. This is not so for men as if their only X chromosome is genetically mutated, their immunity would be seriously impaired against sex-linked disorders such as haemophilia and muscular dystrophy.

Setting the biological and genetic factors aside, women are still more likely to live longer than men due to their social and lifestyle differences. Factors such as smoking, drinking, and overeating are linked more to men than women.