The leading cause of kidney stones is a lack of water in the body. Stones are more commonly found in individuals who drink less than the recommended eight to ten glasses of water a day.
When there is not enough water to dilute the uric acid (a component of urine), the urine becomes more acidic.
An excessively acidic environment in urine is conducive to the formation of kidney stones. Kidney stones are more common among males than females. Most people who experience kidney stones do so between the ages of 30 and 50. A family history of kidney stones also increases one’s chances of developing them.
Similarly, a previous kidney stone occurrence increases the risk that a person will develop subsequent stones in the future if preventative action is not taken.
Certain medications can increase the risk of developing kidney stones. Scientists found that topiramate (Topamax), a drug commonly prescribed to treat seizures and migraine headaches, can increase the likelihood of kidney stones developing.
Additionally, it is possible that long-term use of vitamin D and calcium supplements cause high calcium levels, which can contribute to kidney stones.